New Research in the Treatment and care for Diabetes Mellitus, Multiple Sclerosis, Renal Failure Dialysis

Diabetes Mellitus

New Research

World Health Organization report describes diabetes mellitus as a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that results mainly from poor diet like too much protein, carbohydrates and fats that results from insulin secretion and insulin action imperfections. From the report new research on diabetes mellitus includes;

  • How diabetes mellitus and its treatment causes severe damages, dysfunction and malfunction of different parts of the body.
  • Different criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in both adults and children.
  • How certain medicines and therapies can help treat and prevent diabetes mellitus

The common symptoms that can make one to easily recognize diabetes mellitus include

  • Thirst
  • Polyuria
  • Blurring of vision
  • Weight loss

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WHO therefore encourages measures that will help to avoid the mentioned symptoms like eating balanced diet and drinking a lot of water (eight glasses per day). When the disease reaches its worst form it may lead to development of ketoacidosis leading to state of unconsciousness and, death incase there is no effective treatment.

The new research on diabetes mellitus by WHO found that diagnostic confirmation required for a patient with severe signs and coarse hyperglycemia are not the same as those for asymptomatic patient with blood glucose rates detected to be more than the diagnostic cut-off rate. The research found out that severe hyperglycemia is discovered in presence of dangerous infective, shocking, circulatory or other related condition.

Discussion/ Recommendation for Future

OGTT is in position of establishing diagnostic status only if casual blood glucose is found to be in doubtful range and fasting blood glucose levels are less than those created by the diabetes diagnosis. Therefore, performance of OGTT should be adequate to determine the rates of blood glucose while fasting and within two hours after a 75g oral glucose load.

People with diabetes are at high danger of suffering from diseases like cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular. There is need for more preventive efforts in order to avoid these effects. Public health agencies and other concerned bodies should try to address these conditions at early stages through public education and awareness. Referral cases should be encouraged incase of risk conditions especially to private health settings.

Renal Failure Dialysis

New Research

ADQI report describes renal failure as a critical disease related to high mortality and which has a unique autonomous impact on death danger. The new research on renal failure is concerned with the treatment and understanding of pathogenesis which is still under the subject of controversy. The research insists that the definition of renal failure should include the following;

  • baseline transformation;
  • classifications for acute on chronic renal disease be included;
  • be easy to use and able to be applied clinically in several centers;
  • Both feeling and specificity be considered.

With such a classification it will be easier to identify patients in whom renal function is slightly affected and patients in whom renal function is noticeably affected.

Recommendation

The regularity of gonadal dysfunction in patients with chronic renal failure and in particular the dramatic reversal of hypogonadism after successful renal transplantation are of theoretical and practical interest in the understanding of the regulation of normal and abnormal gonadal function.

  • Specific emphasis should be directed towards the derangements of testicular function in uremia and the central as well as gonad disturbances operative.
  • In addition the parallel abnormalities of the ovarian, thyroidal, adrenal and somatotropin axes in uremia should also be considered. Finally, specific factors implicated in the pathogenesis of uremic hypogonadism should be evaluated.
  • Peripheral hemodialysis access sites should be used to draw blood or infuse medications and fluids in an emergency when no other access is available. A central venous access device may be used with the usual precautions.
  • Firm but nonexclusive pressure for 10-15 minutes should be applied after accessing a peripheral hemodialysis access site.
  • presence of a thrill before and after procedure should be documented
  • Consultation with a nephrologists and/or vascular surgeon should be considered incase of severe problems.

Health agencies should encourage nutritional management in order to improve on the overall health and prevent on the need for the use of medications, hence reducing the side effects associated with such medications. Health institutions should at least have one registered dietitian in prevention and treatment in order to make early effort sin prevention of the disease rather than waiting for treatment.

Multiple Sclerosis

New research

From the new research early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is important; since treatment can slow the disease. The research requires that a neurologist who specializes in treating MS should evaluate your symptoms. An accurate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis be based on medical history and a neurological exam (an exam of the function of the brain and spinal cord) using various tests. The research involves specialized procedures in carrying out accurately diagnosing of MS. The procedures include imaging techniques, such as MRI, spinal taps or lumbar punctures evoked potentials, and lab analysis of blood samples.

The new research on MS consists of;

  • How Multiple sclerosis progressively injures the nerves of the brain and spinal cord.
  • How injury to the nerves in multiple sclerosis may be reflected by alterations of virtually any sensory or motor (muscular) function in the body.
  • Possible approaches for MS in adults
  • How certain medicines and therapies can help in treating and controlling MS

Criteria for a Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis should involve the following to avoid severe effects and for effectiveness;

  • Multiple sclerosis should begins between 20 and 50 years of age
  • Symptoms and signs indicating disease of the brain or spinal cord should be detected
  • Evidence of two or more lesions — or abnormal areas on the brain — from a MRI scan
  • Objective evidence of disease of the brain or spinal cord on doctor’s exam
  • Two or more episodes lasting at least 24 hours and occurring at least one month apart
  • No other explanation for the symptoms

The selection of drug treatment/therapy should be made after the patient with multiple sclerosis has been properly informed of drug efficacy, particular FDA-approved uses, administration routes, risks of adverse events, and methods to enhance tolerability and compliance.

Nutritional management should be encouraged by health agencies to ensure that people proper meals to avoid complicated health problems.

Discussion/ Recommendation for Future

The selection of drug treatment/therapy should be made after the patient with multiple sclerosis has been properly informed of drug efficacy, particular FDA-approved uses, administration routes, risks of adverse events, and methods to enhance tolerability and compliance.

Conclusion

Nutritional management should be encouraged by health agencies to ensure that people proper meals to avoid complicated health problems. Only specialized neurologists in treating MS should evaluate the symptoms of the patients and the diagnosis of MS should be accurately carried out. This will ensure that proper treatment is provided to the MS patients hence, preventing its severe effects.

References

Bellomo,R, Ronco,C, Kellum, J.A, Mehta,R.L, and Palevsky,P,(2012). Acute renal failure – definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Retrieved September 3rd, 2012 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/cc2872.pdf

Burks,J.S and Johnson,K.P, (2000). Multiple sclerosis: diagnosis, medical management, and rehabilitation.New York : Demos

Carr A, Samaras K, Thorisdottir A, Kaufmann GR, Chisholm DJ, Cooper DA.Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

Handelsman,D.J, (2012). Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Dysfunction in Renal Failure, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation. Retrieved September 3rd, 2012 from http://edrv.endojournals.org/content/6/2/151.short.

Hörl, W.H, (2003).Replacement of renal function by dialysis. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Maher, J.F, (1996). Replacement of renal function by dialysis : a textbook of dialysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ.

Weiner, H.Land, Stankiewicz, J.M (2012).Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Therapy.Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons

World Health Organization (1999). Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications.Report of a WHO Consultation.World Health Organization Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance.Geneva

 

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