Similarities and Differences between Online and University Degrees

Online education is the most recent kind of learning whereby students are acquiring degrees through the internet. It has been facilitated by advancement in internet technology, which has made the world a global village (Breivik & Gee 2006 p 47). More over, it has made learning accessible from home or any other place apart from an educational institution. The learners communicate through the internet with the instructor at any time of the day. They are given passwords to particular sites where they can effectively communicate with the educators and access online libraries. This means that the time for accessing materials is not limited since students study at their own convenience. Online education is only accessible to the students who have access to computers and the internet. More students are getting enrollment on online education programs and it has a high potential for growth as the internet technology continues to get established in many countries.

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On the other hand, attending classes in a college is the conventional method of education whereby individuals learn from a face to face interaction with the instructors. Students attend lessons, take notes and do exams under the supervision of instructors. Each college usually has a minimum number of lessons that the student needs to physically attend to be allowed to take exams in a particular course. It may be accomplished through flexible means such as part time learning whereby the students may be working as they study. Both online and college systems of learning are essential in helping people to acquire degrees. They have similarities in regard to the qualifications for admission, curriculum, and the use of internet in research. They differ in mode of instruction, communication and access to learning materials, interaction with other learners and group work, accessibility of educational institution and effectiveness of learning. However, college acquired degrees are better than online degrees.

Learning through the internet, which in other words is referred to as online learning is similar to attending college for a degree course in many ways. In regard to the qualifications for a degree course, the students have to proof to the institution offering the course that they are qualified through submitting their Curriculum Vitae and supporting documents to proof that they are qualified for the course. They also have to proof their true identity to the administration and therefore there can be no personification. This is done through submitting the country Identification Card, passport or the popular documents in that is regarded as the most appropriate for identification purposes, which bears the name and other important aspects such as a size photograph of the applicant (Breivik & Gee 2006 p 51).

The curriculum followed in both systems is usually the same. The students follow a particular schedule that guides all those taking the course. The materials and examinations for the course being taken are usually the same. The instructors in online education and the college educators have similar qualification, and they are selected through the normal process. Most of the instructors in online education are college instructors and therefore the level of education is usually the same. They are competent in the courses that they teach in college. Both require determination in understanding concepts since no certificate can be awarded unless the student passes examinations.

Both online learners and the conventional college students use the internet as an educational resource. They use it for research and communication purposes, hence it is not exclusively meant for online learners. The internet usually comes in handy when the students begin their research projects as well as writing thesis and dissertations. Students in both systems often use the internet to communicate with their instructors.

Differences between Online and University Degrees

The two systems of education have various differences. The manner in which the instructions are offered is different in the sense that in online education, it is through the internet while in college based learning the students interact face to face with the instructors. In the internet based learning, students can communicate with the instructors any time they wish. The same case applies to libraries. They can access educational materials any time at their own convenience. The college based students have a limited time for communicating with instructors. They may communicate during the day or during the early hours of the night. This is because the most appropriate time for communication is during the normal lectures or the scheduled time for meeting the instructors. Even though they communicate through the internet, it is usually not pronounced as communication between the online students and their instructors. More over, educational materials are usually acquired through physically borrowing them from the library, which is a bit inconvenient especially if they are urgently required in an hour when the libraries are closed. The online libraries are accessible throughout. Even though the college students can buy access to online libraries, they mainly depend on the school libraries.

Another major difference is the fact that online students may not have a chance to interact physically with other students undertaking the same course. Even though they can engage in forums through the internet, certain skills such as public speaking and presentation skills may not be accomplished since the student makes and individual contribution without having an opportunity to engage in constructive group debates. This is usually possible for college based students who have an opportunity for forming discussion groups that are necessary in any educational setup. Attendance is highly recommended in the college based classes and students have to stick to the daily schedule of classes and therefore have to be residents of the area around the college. On the other hand, the internet classes are flexible and the students have an opportunity to adjust them to fit their schedule.

Education through the internet may be acquired from anywhere globally. Most of the lessons are usually recorded for all the students to access them whenever they log in to the class. In other words, the student attends a class that has already passed and has the opportunity to wind back particular statements that may not be clear or stop to attend to an urgent issue. For college based education, it is usually difficult to have the information restated exactly the way it was stated earlier. When a student is late for a lecture, there is a possibility of not understanding particular concepts taught in his/her absence. However, the instructor can be requested to repeat or clarify certain points when in a college based class. The video taped lecture can only be winded back, stopped or forwarded. In regard to technical courses that require laboratory tests, it is difficult for an online student to perform them especially when a laboratory is not available, which is a practice that is possible in college based education.


Both education through the internet and college based learning require that the applicants be qualified for the particular level of education they apply for. The applicant has to submit details regarding personal qualifications and identity. Both systems follow a similar curriculum and therefore students learn the same things. The major difference is the means of instructions. College students interact physically with the instructors while it is not possible among the online learners. College based education requires commuting and the physical attendance of classes while online education can be acquired from anywhere globally. Even though both internet education and college based education offer significant education to students in spite of their similarities and differences, college based education is better.


Breivik P. S. & Gee G. Higher Education in the Internet Age: Libraries Creating a Strategic

Edge, Greenwood Press, 2006

The Impact of the use of Steroids in Baseball Sample Paper

Baseball is a sport in which players use cognitive and physical capabilities to score goals through running and tapping the four bases within the playing field. Each team usually engages 9 members, which means that there are usually 18 players in a standard baseball game. Scoring requires making intelligent moves since the opponent keeps a tough defense and keeps on attacking the other team. The winner is usually determined by the number of innings, with nine innings being regarded as the professional score (Keri 2006 p 18). For players to be competent in the game, they need to be physically powerful and also need to endure the exhaustion involved in the game. Players are usually tempted to use steroids to improve vitality and endurance. It is true that they have a short term positive effect, but they also adversely affect the player in the long term. However, the substances are illegal and may lead to disqualification of players and nullification of awards and prizes. This essay is a critique of the use of steroids in base ball. It highlights some of the factors that lead to their use and the positive and negative effects of using steroids in baseball.

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There is an increasing trend in the use of steroids among baseball players in recent years (Keri 2006 p 71). This trend can be attributed to advancement in technology, which has made it possible for many firms to engage in the production of steroids. More over, advancement in technology has lowered the cost of production, which translates to a low retail price, making them affordable to many players. Due to the commoditization of sports whereby winners earn huge amounts of money, baseball players tend to focus on maintenance of vitality to outdo the opponents. With many teams focusing on winning the game, the use of steroids among baseball players increased at a high rate in the last decade. Players are also motivated to use steroids to be attractive to fans through increased performance (Carroll et al. 2007 p 57).

Trainers have also been pointed out as the initiator of the use of steroids among baseball players. Sports authorities have banned the use of steroids to enhance performance in baseball. However, players continue to use them illegally, but the media continues to expose such users, leading to their disqualification in sports. Nevertheless, the awareness that the media has created among fans and sponsors has not caused any harm to baseball since the game continues to be played with a few players being identified as steroid users, which is often followed by disqualification. In many cases, the media has been accused by baseball teams of stereotyping an entire club of steroid use just because of an individual, although teams have been capable of coping with such allegations and accomplishing high levels of performance. The BALCO issue is among the major cases whereby the performance of players has been associated with the use of steroids (Keri 2006 p 71).

There are several advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of steroids in baseball. The advantages include the vitality in sports and improved physique. The user also develops a feeling of happiness and confidence in approaching issues related to sports. The steroids also make it possible for people to endure increased level of physical activity, which is essential to win the game (Carroll et al. 2007 p 63). On the other hand, steroids have been proofed to have side effects on the users, which include despair, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety aggressiveness, impatience and such psychological disorders. They can also damage the liver and other body organs, especially through facilitating the development of cancer. In other words, the benefits of using steroids are limited, and the individual suffers the adversity of side effects. Continued use of the steroids is due to the fact that the side effects usually do not appear in the initial stages as players begin using them. They experience the beneficial effects leading to more consumption which eventually turns out to be a chronic problem (Pluto 2006 p 21). The players who engage in the use of steroids in baseball initially acquire recognition by fans. However, it later turns out to be a source of shame when it is established that the player was performing under the influence of steroids.

Peterson (2005 p 68) argues that there is need to respect individual rights and freedoms. The use of steroids to supplement a person’s natural ability can be viewed from an individual freedom’s point of view. This is because a person needs to be allowed to own oneself and do whatever he/she wishes with the whole body. Preventing the use of steroids in baseball may therefore be seen as infringement of individual freedom. On the other hand, Peterson illustrates that individual rights and freedom need to be allowed so long as they do not interfere with other people’s rights (71). What one person does to add to his/her competitive advantage may lead to ethical wrongdoing when trying to justify the positive results. This may affect other people’s rights. Whenever the side effects of using steroids occur for example violent behavior, other players’ rights may be infringed because they have a right to live in a peaceful environment. Steroid use therefore needs to be prohibited. More over, it gives the user a competitive advantage over the other players, making it an unfair competition. Penalties for the use of steroids in baseball affect the players especially those who engage in professional sports. After the discovery that a baseball player has used steroids, it is usually difficult to convince fans that the player is no longer using them. It ruins the player’s sporting career (Walker 2006 p 16).


Baseball is a sport that needs energetic players for effective performance. The need to accomplish this makes players to be tempted to use steroids, which enhance muscle development and vitality. Steroid users assert that it is useful in enhancing their performance and recuperating from injuries. However, opponents of the use of steroids argue that it is injurious to the body, especially due to its side effects. Users may turn out to be violent against other people, thereby infringing their rights. Steroids give the users an advantage over other players, which leads to unfair competition. It is therefore important that their use in baseball be banned for a fair game to be accomplished.


Carroll, W., Carroll W. L. & Schwarz A. The Juice: The Real Story of Baseball’s Drug Problems.

Ivan R. Dee, Pub, 2007.

Keri, J. Baseball between the Numbers, New York: Basic Books, 2006.

Peterson G. B. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press,


Pluto, T. Baseball created a culture of neglect in steroid controversy. Magazine Article from The

Akron Beacon Journal, March 20, 2006.

Walker D. War on youth steroid uses a team effort; Baseball joins forces with anti-drug groups.

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, April 25, 2006

Annotated Bibliography

Carroll, W., Carroll W. L. & Schwarz A. The Juice: The Real Story of Baseball’s Drug Problems.

Ivan R. Dee, Pub, 2007.

The book focuses on the passion that is associated with baseball from fans. They know the rules and techniques of baseball and can analyze and distinguish between competent players in the game. Changing any of the rules may raise concern amongst fans. The book presents a positive outlook of fans in regard to the use of steroids in baseball. However, the book also presents some negative consequences associated with the use of steroids.

Keri, J. Baseball between the Numbers, New York: Basic Books, 2006.

The book presents a history of baseball, highlighting the major developments over time. The main points of focus in this essay are the developments between 2000 and 2005, which is the period when the highest use of steroids was recorded.

Peterson G. B. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press,


The book emphasizes on ethical values that help in building harmonious relations among humans. The main interest for the book in the essay is observance of individual rights and freedoms, whereby the a person is allowed to own oneself and do whatever he/she feels fit for the body but ensure that individual actions do not infringe the rights of others. This indicates that even though baseball players have the right and freedom to use their own bodies, the negative consequences such as violence infringe the rights of other people and therefore steroids need to be prohibited in baseball.

Pluto, T. Baseball created a culture of neglect in steroid controversy. The Akron Beacon Journal,

Vol 20.4, (2006): 21.

The news paper article focuses on baseball as the cause of the extreme use of steroids. It is viewed as the major source of motivation towards the use of steroids in games. However, the article points out that the negligence in regard to solving controversies regarding use of steroids in baseball may have adverse effects in the future of Major League Baseball.

Walker D. War on youth steroid uses a team effort; Baseball joins forces with anti-drug groups.

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Vol 16.2, (2006): 16

The article focuses on the efforts in place to form a significant partnership in America aimed at sensitizing players regarding the use of steroids, and strategies for eliminating its use in baseball. Many groups have been involved in these efforts. Baseball is viewed as the main partner that has financed sensitization of the public and players through mass media.


domestic violence as a threat to the welfare of the society

Domestic violence refers to the physical, emotional, economic or sexual abuse exercised over a person by his or her intimate partner or on other family members such as children (Chapin 2009). It is a common vice in the society which most of the times go unreported thus the need to create awareness and the necessary platforms that would enable the victims to report cases and receive justice. Women are the most affected by this form of violence though a significant number of males have also reported cases of violence. Domestic violence may result to serious body injuries on the victims body especially where physical abuse is involved which may consist of beatings, pushing or rape and in worst cases death may occur (Chapin 2009). This essay is an evaluation of domestic violence as a threat to the welfare of the society and which should be addressed through the various legal systems so as to ensure that relationships are based on mutual respect for one another and also to protect human rights against abuse.

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Domestic Violence

According to The National Crime Victimization survey, approximately 1900 deaths were reported in the year 2000 as a result of domestic violence in America (Vaknin 2003). From this figure, women victims comprised the highest number of close to 1500 victims. This however does not reflect the actual figures due to the fact that most of the victims do not report the crimes committed against them due to factors such as fear, lack economic power to challenge their abductors in court etc (Vaknin 2003). The attitude held by people that marriage and relationship affairs are private thus leaving the responsibility to the couples to solve their own differences, is also a factor that makes it almost impossible to solve this dilemma. This is because it makes the victims adjust to the vice instead of reporting or going for help from their friends, due to the fear of being rejected and disrespected. As such, the most important action that should be given first priority is to educate the society on the importance of respecting human rights as well as making a clear definition of what domestic violence entails. In addition, the highest number of cases involved the African American women. In the observations made, it was noted that majority of the victims opted to remain in the abusive relationships rather than file for divorce. This has in some cases been attributed to the family back ground within which a victim is brought up. This is due to the fact that whereas male children are given leading roles and authority, the female child is in most of the times brought up knowing that she is supposed to serve and respect the males in her surroundings. As such, they form a submissive approach towards their male companions who may take advantage to oppress them.

The security departments such as the police have also been noted to be reluctant in the way they handle cases that are reported to them involving domestic violence (Chapin 2009). Most of the cases end up unattended such that no help is availed to the victims. This enhances repetitive cases due to the knowledge that violent persons have that they cannot be apprehended. Some situations end up more worse after reporting whereby a victim is punished by a partner for reporting them to the police. This instills fear in the victim such that any occurrences afterwards would not be reported due to the lack of trust in the police (Chapin 2009). This therefore requires an establishment of special police branches to deal specifically with cases of domestic violence on gender basis so as to prevent the possibility of gender bias while investigating the cases. The officers should also be given further training to empower them with the necessary skills for solving such cases. Where poor performance among the officers is reported, appropriate punishments should be administered in order to maintain the effectiveness and the integrity of the police as well as to accomplish their goal which is to serve and maintain law and order.

According to statistics, approximately 2000 people in America alone died from cases related to intimate domestic violence in the year 2005 (Chapin 2009). In another report delivered from a survey of National Violence against Women, approximately 22% and 8% of women and men respectively experience domestic violence at least once in their lifetime (CDC 2009). The consequences of these occurrences on the economy cannot be underestimated as the victims may incur heavy loses on treatment as well as the possibility of incapacitation which may deny them the opportunity to serve in their professional fields thus slowing down the economic growth. In relation to this, it is estimated that over $ 8 billion are spent in correcting damages that are as a result of domestic violence (Chapin 2009). This is a high expenditure that can be invested in other sectors which are more productive or towards facilitating better health care by improving the already existing medical services.

As such, the issue of domestic violence should be addressed accordingly to prevent the damage which occurs on victims which may include and not limited to depression, mental illness or HIV infection as well as death. In order to be able to solve this issue, the possible causes should be identified and dealt with them though there is no justifiable reason as to why cases of violence should occur. Such causes include for example drunkenness whereby a partner commits the crime under the influence of alcohol due to lack of proper judgment, drug abuse, cultural beliefs whereby a certain gender is discriminated against for example in matters concerning wealth and political empowerment as well as their rights to make decisions pertaining to sex (Bankroft 2003). In some societies, the primitive notion that men are superior to women is an obstacle that should be dealt with since it is used to justify their actions such as sexual harassment whereby it is mutually acceptable for a man to punish his wife in case she refuses to have sex with him. Under such circumstances, the woman will always be oppressed by the male dominance. The mostly affected gender is the females who are always seen as inferior to men such that they are denied the right to own property thus making them vulnerable and more like servants than equal partners in family businesses. Due to this, they continue to suffer in the hands of their partners without necessarily informing the authorities for appropriate action to be taken (Bankroft 2003). Lack of economic empowerment also deters their ability to hire lawyers to represent them in cases which may help them to get compensation for the damages inflicted on them.

Under these circumstances, the woman is left to fight for her own rights in her own home, a factor that has contributed to worse situations that result to death (Shwartz 2004). An example is a man who every day comes home drunk beats his wife and chases her out of the house at night without caring where she would go or the dangers that she would be exposed to. This is a heinous act which due to the society’s discriminative attitude towards women leaves her with no other option but to spend the night in the cold since no one would be generous enough to provide shelter to a woman who does not ‘respect’ her husband. This goes on for a long time until one day she gets fed up with the physical abuse. As usual, the husband comes home drunk and beats his wife but this time he is surprised because instead of the usual ease with which he commits the act, his wife retaliates by taking a knife and stabbing him on the chest after which he falls down dead (Shwartz 2004). Whereas people may argue that the woman is on the wrong, it would be true to say that many unplanned cases of this nature do happen in the society, due to the reluctance of the various legal institutions to apprehend criminals who cause harm to their spouses. In addition, not all instances of violence end this way. There are times when cases of violence lead to the actual death of the victims either intentionally or by accident which may occur in the process of committing the act.

To prevent cases of domestic violence, various initiatives should be undertaken to ensure that new cases do not develop, while also managing the already reported cases. Such initiatives should be for example creating awareness among the vulnerable groups so that they can recognize their rights after which they would be able to know when they are being subjected to violence. This is due to the fact that many people do not know their rights and as such, they usually follow what their customs dictate and what is universally acceptable within their communities (Bankroft 2004). Due to this, to them it would appear to be normal for a partner to demand for sexual favors as well as to control and dominate over the other. The society at large should be educated on the dangers and consequences of domestic violence so as to influence their way of thinking and approach towards the weaker sex.

By doing so, some barbaric custom beliefs that promote domestic violence would be dropped thus creating a favorable environment for people to cohabit. In societies that do not support divorce, it is common to find cases of domestic violence especially on women due to the fact that they are married for life and as such, they do not have the liberty to terminate their relationships once they turn violent. As such, divorce should be considered as a solution to the crises or as a preventive measure against recurrent cases of violence (Chapin 2009). This would clear the conscience of the victim in case he or she decides to walk away from a relationship which could result to greater damages for example death. This would be significant especially in those societies where women are perceived to be more or less like property especially due to the issue of bride price. In such cases, a good wife is recognized not by her character but through her ability to obey and respect her husband and expect little or nothing in return.


Domestic violence refers to the physical, emotional, economical or sexual abuse that a person can inflict on his intimate partner as well as his other family members. In this context, any act that may result to the displeasure of a partner for example forced sex, beating and denial of access to family funds or the right to express discontent can be termed as domestic violence. In places such as America where these cases are reported, women are identified as the most vulnerable to this act. However, various statistics taken by various institutions for example CDC and Bureau of Justice Statistics show that men equally are victims of domestic violence though not at a higher rate than women. Not only does this form of violence cause mental and physical disorders but also may result to the death of victims. As such, strict measures should be taken to punish offenders. Women should also be empowered economically so as to enable them defend their rights against abuse by their male companions. By doing so, they become independent such that they do not necessarily have to stay in relationships that are violent just because the men are supporting them. It has also been noted that sometimes the police lack the will to help the victims of domestic violence thus making it difficult to control the vice. As such, proper training should be conducted in order to enhance the effectiveness with which such cases are handled. More police departments should be created for dealing with specific cases involving such crimes. In addition, those officers who mistreat or fail to attend to reports from victims should be punished either by relieving them of their duties or taking them to court. This would help to counter the reoccurrence of violence which is based on the reluctance of the police to apprehend criminals.


Bankroft L. (2003) Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men,

Berkley Trade Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Intimate Partner Violence Can Lead to Serious Injury, Retrieved 09 November, 2009

From <>

Chapin J (2009) Domestic Violence Beliefs and Perceptions across the Lifespan, the

International Journal of Humanities, 7(1), 49-58

Shwartz D. (2004) Whose Face Is in the Mirror? The Story of One Woman’s Journey from the

Nightmare of Domestic Abuse to True Healing, Hay House

Vaknin S. (2003). Domestic Violence Statistics, Retrieved 14 November 2009

From <>



Family and Community Influences on Competence among Students in Bahamian School

The Bahamas population comprises of more than 97% of literate people above 15 years of age, which is attributed to government’s policy on compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 and 16 years. It is only few isolated cases of illiterate people. There are government and private schools in Bahamas. After completion of secondary education at the age of 16 years, people can choose to join various tertiary institutions in the country for advanced education (Strand 2008). The learning environment usually has a great impact on accomplishment or educational goals in the country. Students usually adopt the culture of the learning environment. The actions of the community are therefore influential in regard to performance in schools. There is need for community participation in promoting education, which the government advocates, as well as the cooperation of parents in helping the students to achieve in school.

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When students are exposed to a hostile environment at home or within the community their performance declines. Lack of parental support may also lead to stress and poor performance. The community needs to serve as a good example to students, which generates enthusiasm for them to learn to accomplish what successful people have accomplished in the community. A community without a culture of promoting education may not accomplish the development needs in the contemporary society, which needs continuous learning and technological advancement to remain competitive and self sufficient. Schools are meant to help the children to develop both intellectually and socially. These are the basis for a competent society in regard to solving problems affecting it as well as maintaining self sufficiency. This essay is a critique of how family and community conditions enhance or hinder the ability of schools to produce socially and academically competent students in Bahamian schools. It focuses on the concept of environmental impact.


Attending classes continuously for more than 10 years with short breaks is usually a long process that requires endurance and determination. In the initial stages when children begin attending school, they usually do not understand the meaning of education. Many of them view school as a place that enables parents to get rid of them for many hours in a day. Unless the parents generate understanding amongst their children regarding the importance of attending school, teachers may be unable to model the students to be enthusiastic about learning new things every day. Parents need to prepare their children sufficiently for school. This helps in getting rid of thoughts of absenteeism, which is a major drawback towards the accomplishment of educational goals. Chris (2007) observes that absenteeism often culminates in high dropout rates among students.

More over, the students who have the problem of persistent absenteeism usually develop in to unreliable individuals since they always tend to find a reason to justify their reason for being absent. Such students end up becoming liars to the teachers, and they are likely to fail in education. The main issue of focus in such cases is the child’s parents. They need to keep track of their child’s movements especially when they discover the development of this chronic absenteeism. The family environment may hinder the child’s achievement in school if parents do not link with teachers to establish the cause of emerging issues in the children such as absenteeism. The problem of absenteeism can also be escalated by the community. In most cases, the student may fail to attend school and fail to report back home. The teacher and the parent remain convinced that the child is under the care of the other. When the child hangs around within the community without the parent’s knowledge, members of the community need to take responsible action and report the issue to school or to the parents. If the community holds education in high regard, it is possible for the students to appreciate being in school. This is significant in improving attendance in school as well as reducing persistent absenteeism (Chris 2007).

Maintaining Discipline

In the contemporary society, people have become modernized to the extent that they do not care much regarding other people’s children. However, this development usually originates from the parents who have tended to disregard the conventional bringing up of children whereby a grown up could discipline through standard caning of another person’s child. In the post-modern period, parents may even file a legal complaint for disciplining a child regardless of the offence committed. In Bahamas, teachers are restricted from administering physical punishment to students and as Bonimy (2008) reported; only head masters are allowed to administer corporal punishment in schools. This is an indication that even members of the community are not allowed to administer punishment to other people’s children. The community may therefore have the potential to deal with absenteeism, but it can play a major role in informing parents or teachers regarding the behavior of a student.

Link between Teachers, Parents and the Community in General

Parents on the other hand need to be open to positive criticism of their children by community members and teachers. They need not look at the community members as disillusioned people who have no business in ones own child. Parents need to allow the child to fully belong to the community so that bringing up and educating the child becomes everybody’s affair. It might help in developing a useful link among teachers, parents and the community in general. The success of a child also needs to be appreciated by the three vital components in the educational system. Parents need to be in the fore front in regard to appreciating the achievement of their own children, and also play a role as part of the community to appreciate the accomplishments of other people’s children. In the contemporary society, education seems to be a form of competition rather than collaboration in the community to accomplish a shared vision. For example, different children compete against each other without the community or parents joining efforts to establish what causes the difference in performance. This would be an important avenue for the parents of the poorly performing children to understand ways of improving their performance. Competing in school should only be understood as a motivator for the children to work harder (Clark, 1997).


Mentorship for the students needs to come from the community. The conception of parents and the community regarding education is also important for the achievements of the children in education. Hobart et al. (2005) observe that mentors are significant for the student to remain competent in education. When the student is exposed to difficult tasks in education, there is usually a tendency to give up especially when facts seem to be vague. For example, a student working on a stressful science or mathematics subject may wonder in regard to their application in life. A mentor helps the students to understand why it is important to keep on working hard to understand concepts, even the ones that seem difficult to understand. The student develops the desire to see the application of concepts later in life. Mentorship programs in many Bahamas’ schools helps in keeping students active in schools. Without mentorship, there is a high possibility of school drop outs.

Parent’s Involvement in Assessing the Student’s Work

Earlier research indicates that the family plays a critical role in motivating students to accomplish high grades. This is because parents who are concerned about their children’s performance in school continuously request to view results of the regular exercises they do in school, and assist them where they are unable to understand. The parent plays a significant role in the child’s performance due to the fact that in class, the teacher deals with a large group of children and may be unable to identify the special needs of each student except during exams. Reviewing the student’s work gives the parent an opportunity to deal with the child as an individual; hence he/she can realize the weaknesses of the child. The child is also capable of completing assignments due to the motivation by the parent. In many situations, when the students are left to work on their own, they are likely to abandon the work when they are unable to identify a solution. Completion of tasks under the guidance of parents makes them understand concepts better. The parent is also informed regarding the child’s attendance by assessing the notes taken from various lessons. A child who constantly interacts with the parent is likely to be well behaved in school, as well as developing positive outlook in regard to his/her relationship with others at school (Rigby 2005). Such positive attitude is important for intellectual development of the child, hence improved performance.

Accessibility of School

Accessibility of the school is significant for the effective performance of children. The parents play a vital role in ensuring that transport is available, which is important in avoidance of lateness in schools. Lateness is one of the factors that Lindon (2003) observed contributes to truancy and high drop out rates amongst children who do not sleep in school. It is usually a problem that many students are unable to solve by themselves. This is because it may originate from environmental factors and the daily encounters by the children as they move to and from school. When students arrive late in school and receive punishment persistently, they might shun from entering the school compound fearing the consequences of lateness. Failure to attend school results in further punishment, which leads to thoughts of dropping out. The parent needs to understand the factors that might cause lateness in the child and find a solution, which may include facilitating them with better means of transport, waking them up earlier, and ensuring that they sleep early to avoid extending the morning hours in sleep.

Student’s Wellbeing

It is also important for the parents to understand that they are part of the child’s environment that may hinder or facilitate learning. This knowledge is helpful in the avoidance of a stressful environment that may lead to poor understanding capability of the children. They need to be shown understanding at home so that they can develop confidence and self-esteem when relating with other students. Children who are stressed at home usually develop a negative attitude towards life as well as other people. They tend to feel inferior and may not perform well in class. The cooperation of parents in solving problems affecting the children motivates them to learn and accomplish as much as they can. Whenever such children encounter problems, their performance can not be affected since they always have in mind that the parents will help them out (Rigby 2005).

Parents need to promote a family environment in which the children are trained to respect each other. They should be able to maintain a harmonious relationship amongst the children and avoid prejudice while dealing with them. In circumstances where children are discriminated against, they are likely to suffer from inferiority. It is also important to determine whether children are facing oppression or discrimination in school that might lead to stress related problems, which may hamper their ability to learn. Children who have been deprived of basic facilities may not perform well in school due to stress that hampers their understanding capability (David 2005). For example, children who report to school on daily basis need to be taken care of through ensuring that they are well fed. Breakfast means a lot to their level of concentration in school. The parents need to ensure that they take breakfast, and that hygiene is observed in all the meals taken. This helps in preventing hygienic diseases as well as malnutrition due to poor feeding habits. Children who take nutritious food have better participation in school and are able to perform class work effectively.

The family set up may influence the performance of a child in school. Children who are affected by domestic violence may be unable to have enough sleep, which may inhibit the performance of the children in school. Parents need to ensure that disputes are solved in the absence of children to avoid stressing them. They should not be exposed to the suffering of parents or be allowed to compare themselves with other children who have what they lack. The socio-economic aspect of the family may be an important determinant of the availability of essential facilities to make learning possible. Children need to be understood and motivated to continue even when parents undergo difficult times. The parents who are capable of demonstrating concern for their children’s needs even when they are undergoing difficult times generate enthusiasm in their children, which motivates them to learn. In other words, parents need to show them that they are not the problem (McMillan and Schumacher 2009).

Performance Standards

Families can improve the performance of students by setting up performance standards at home. For example children learn better through practice. Ensuring that they use the correct language while communicating at home makes it possible for them to write it correctly in school. If the parents or community use the wrong language, the children are bound to emulate their seniors as well as family members and may never learn to use the correct language even in school. Their developing mind may be confused since what they learn in school is different from what is applied in communication within the society. Family principles are significant in modeling the behavior of children. For example, punctuality in the family means a lot to the behavior of children in school. If things run according to schedule at home and the children are taught to ensure that it is followed, it is easy for them to follow the school’s schedule. They should be capable of setting their own schedule and performance standards from the knowledge that they acquire from this practice in the family (Hobart et al. 2005). On the other hand, a community that operates in an organized manner helps in maintaining high level of organization of its members. Organizers of community functions need to demonstrate high level of organization to be emulated by learners.


Promoting good morals and ethical principles is important for effective performance amongst children in school. The manner in which parents teach their children to relate with others determines the level of performance in school. For example, if a child has been taught to respect his/her seniors at home, it would be possible to respect teachers in school. Parents also need to educate their children regarding aggressive behavior and the use of abusive language. This enables them to relate with other students without engaging in violent activities. Such students are likely to perform effectively. It is important for the parents to inform the children regarding the dangers of using drugs. Children meet with many students from different families, which present a threat of accessing drugs from the children who come from families that engage in substance abuse (Lindon 2003). With prior information regarding such encounters, students are capable of escaping the trap of being influenced in to taking them. The community can also positively influence the behavior of children by failing to tolerate unethical behavior and the abuse of drugs especially near schools. This is possible because the people who engage in these acts are usually members of the same community. It has been possible to prevent access of drugs in Bahamas’ schools through the cooperation of the community and the government in fighting against drug abuse.

Opportunities in the Community

There are many opportunities for learning in the communities surrounding schools. If awareness is created among the students regarding these opportunities, educational goals can be accomplished. For example, when students are involved in community activities where they offer services during vacations, they have a chance of interacting with professionals who motivate them to become responsible members of the society. Developing a sense of social responsibility among the students facilitates learning since they become responsible in school thereby increasing their capacity to learn. The community needs to accept student participation in voluntary activities such as environmental conservation, caring for people with special needs in the community and participating in public forums. These are avenues whereby students can acquire diverse knowledge. This knowledge gives them an idea of what it is like to be a professional, and the areas in which they can put more effort in school focusing on a particular career (Clark, 1997).

The community can also offer chances for students to participate in community driven events such as talent shows, cultural events and art among other events whereby people from diverse backgrounds demonstrate their uniqueness. When students are given such an opportunity, they are motivated to be inventive in developing fascinating shows. They are able to discover their talents in such events, which are useful in determining the careers to choose. On the other hand, students are provided with an opportunity to observe the application of talents and knowledge in real life. Students in Bahamas have a chance to participate in community activities where they interact with people who have diverse talents. Apart from accomplishing educational goals, extra curricular activities help in the development of the students socially. They acquire interpersonal skills that help them to express themselves to other people, which is useful in life especially after completion of studies.


Families and communities may positively or negatively influence the performance of children in school. Community and family members need to cooperate in ensuring that there is a high level of attendance amongst students. They should also act as role models for the children. This is significant in promoting good morals and ethical behavior among the children. Parents need to ensure that the children are provided with the necessary support to facilitate the performance of children. The community and parents in Bahamas have been successful in maintaining high levels of enrollment of children in schools in line with the government policy. Mentorship programs have been significant in the maintenance of students in schools. Participation of students in community activities as volunteers gives them a chance to interact with professionals, thereby motivating them to work harder. They learn to become responsible in all aspects of life. They also discover their talents when they are given the opportunity to perform in communal events. The school drop out rate in Bahamas is low. However, there is need for more cooperation between parents, teachers and the community in general, so that success amongst children in education can be accomplished.



Bonimy J. (2008). Turnquest supports corporal punishment: Says he did not know teachers still “beat students”, Nassau Guardian.

Chris B. (2007). Child Protection; an Introduction, Sage Publications.

Clark, T. E. (1997). Designing and Implementing an Integrated Curriculum: A Student-Centered Approach, Holistic Education Press.

David H. (2005). Child Abuse and Neglect: Attachment Development & Intervention, Palgrave Macmillan.

Hobart C., Frankel J. and Walker M. (2005). Good Practice in Child Protection 2nd Edition, Nelson Thornes.

Lindon J. (2003). Child Protection, Hodder Arnold.

McMillan J. and Schumacher S. (2009). Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Pearson Education.

Rigby K. (2005). Bullying in schools and the National Safe Schools Framework. Teacher: The National Education Magazine, Vol. 6(1) pp 20–22

Strand D. (2008). Going to School in the Bahamas. Faces: People, Places, and Cultures. High School Journal, Vol. 31(1) pp 1-13.

Key Factors for Success (KFS) in Organizations Today Sample Paper

The key factors that are significant for a business to accomplish its objectives are mainly focused on improving its competitiveness. For example, convenience is one of the significant factors that determine the ability of a business to survive. It is important for investors to conduct a feasibility study to ensure that a business is viable before any capital outlay (Cole, 2003 p 57). The availability of market for the products guarantees competitiveness of an industry. Without a ready market for commodities produced, the business can not make profits, and therefore can not survive. More over, it has to be accessible to the consumers. Consumers like purchasing their products from easily accessible industries where they can return them in case of malfunction. This generates confidence in the organization’s products. On the other hand, consumers have to be accessible to increase sales. Without proper access to the market, an industry may be unable to sell the anticipated amount, or may incur higher costs of distribution.

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The choice of the business type is of utmost importance. Investors need to identify a business and analyze the pay back period to ensure that they settle on the most applicable investment decision. It requires an analysis of the kind of consumers in the market to ascertain that the products offered by the industry match the needs of the consumers. This is significant in developing positioning strategies for the products. It is also important to ensure that products are durable, especially for a newly established business. Once investors bring their capital in to the market, they are usually faced with problems, which are common for beginners. They are initially not competitive and therefore might take long to attract customers, hence the quantity of produce needs to be controlled until the business establishes in the market. For durable products, more products may be produced to be sold in the long-run.

The products should be satisfactory to the health standards. The most risky occurrence in an organization may be the revocation of an operating license. This is because it might happen when the industry is already in operation, having produced a substantial amount of commodities. This may lead to a heavy loss, hence the need to satisfy the health and safety requirements in the workplace, as well as the recommended standards in regard to quality (Hannagan, 2007 p 67). Consumers are usually sensitive to quality, especially for emerging products. The investor needs to satisfy consumer demands at the conception stage, which is significant for the performance of an industry. Research and development are also key factors to success.

In regard to distribution, an organization needs to ensure that the consumers enjoy place utility. The products need to be delivered wherever they need them. This is a major success factor since consumers get the desired products from the industry when they wish. In other words, the distributors have to be reliable people. They also need to be trusted, in the sense that the consumers can even pay in advance and be confident that they will get the products as they ordered. The manner in which the industry personnel relate with the consumers is also important. They need to be able to establish strong relations with consumers to be in a capacity to convince them regarding the need to purchase the organization’s products (Cole, 2003 p 61).

Social responsibility is important in creating a strong bond between the organization and consumers of its products. It involves participating in activities that do not directly benefit the industry, such as playing part in community development. The industry may participate in environmental conservation or other issues affecting the public, which makes it possible for it to reach more people and generate confidence as well as interact with consumers. It should also be able to avoid environmental pollution, which may lead to penalties or other undesirable reactions from the government. More over, the industry needs to be flexible and adaptable to emerging technologies. Rigid organizations may be unable to accomplish much since technological advancements lead to constant changes.


  1. Cole, G. A. (2003). Management Theory and Practice, Thomson Learning.
  2. Hannagan, T. (2007). Management: Concepts and Practices, Financial Times/ Prentice Hall.



The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Leadership

What makes for a successful leader? This is a question that is constantly asked, but does not have a definitive answer. Someone in corporate America may suggest that being business savvy makes for an excellent leader (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). While the research points at many different possibilities, there is one area where researchers have not accomplished much, which is crucial to any leadership position, and that is emotional intelligence.

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Research has regarded Emotional Intelligence as an essential element for any leader. Goleman (1998) has stated that, “the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way; they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence (p 94). Others have said that, “By now, most executives have accepted that emotional intelligence is as critical as IQ to an individual’s effectiveness” (Druskat & Wolff, 2001, p.81). So, what is Emotional Intelligence? Various schools of thought explain the meaning of emotional intelligence. Reviewing the scholarly work regarding emotional intelligence in educational leadership will help in establishing its applicability, and the areas that need further research, to enhance knowledge transfer in learning institutions. This paper is a literature review on emotional intelligence and its connection to leadership in education. It seeks to identify the knowledge gap that exists in the understanding of emotional intelligence, which will lead to further research in this field.

Search Strategies

The key phrases for locating journals and academic papers regarding Emotional Intelligence in ERIC and EBSCOHOST include; journals/books/articles on Emotional Intelligence, implications of Emotional Intelligence on leadership, theories on Emotional Intelligence, models and components of Emotional Intelligence.

Origins of the Concept of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence, originally referred to as social intelligence, was first discussed in the 1920s by E. L. Thorndike (1920). Thorndike (1920) theorized that social intelligence was a person’s ability to manage people; to make wise decisions when dealing with human relations. From there, the definition began to expand. Salovey and Mayer (1990 p 56) coined the term “emotional intelligence” and initially defined emotional intelligence in the following manner:

“A form of intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ beliefs and emotions to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey and Mayer 1990 p 56).

Salovey and Mayer (1990) later amended the definition of emotional intelligence to its current description:

In the 1990s, Mayer defined emotional intelligence as “the capacity to reason with emotion in four areas: to perceive emotion, to integrate it into thought, to understand it and to manage it” (Mayer, 1999 p 86)

While many worked to define Emotional Intelligence, the concept was not widely accepted, until 1995 when Goleman (1995) published what came to be a best selling book: Emotional Intelligence. In this book, he defined Emotional Intelligence as a combination of skills, traits, and good behavior. No longer was IQ valued as the most important trait of an effective leader; rather, Goleman’s (1995) research focused on emotional intelligence being most powerful, and being a better indicator of the success of a leader. With these definitions, one is able to relate emotional intelligence with various leadership roles.



Research on Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship to Effective Leadership

Many scholars have written much about emotional intelligence. Their different viewpoints indicate the significance of emotional intelligence in leadership, especially in the workplace as well as in the community (Singh, 2008). Emotional intelligence is one of the leadership qualities that are major determinants of managerial success in organizations. Fullan (2001) has asserted that it involves understanding the attitudes of the subordinates in matters regarding daily operations in the workplace, which largely affects the accomplishment of organizational goals. Leaders who have low levels of emotional intelligence may not understand the best approach to handle their subordinates who think differently and possess varying attitudes regarding their activities in the workplace. Emotional intelligence is significant in discerning the people who are bound to be successful and those who are not (Hipp et al. 2008). More over, Kouzes and Posner (1995) point out that it is possible for leaders with a high-level of emotional intelligence to identify the actions that facilitate success. It determines the capacity of a manager to analyze and understand the contemplation of employees (Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005). This is one of the competences in leaders, which helps in the enhancement of satisfaction amongst subordinates.

Palmer (2003) has observed that there is a relationship between uncompetitive leadership and emotional intelligence. According to him, leadership traits should not only comprise perception or the leader’s awareness regarding the day-to-day operations. Rather, they should be inclusive of other important aspects such as the ability to recognize personal believes and attitudes and those of others regarding workplace issues. Leaders make a mistake in conceptualizing their roles. Fullan (2001) has observed that leadership has been mistaken for conventional managerial functions, meaning that leadership is the same as management. However, the two are different regarding the manner in which they deal with the subordinates in an organization.

According to Louis and Marks (1998), the emotional intelligence (EQ) of leaders matters more than their intelligence quotient (IQ). A deficiency in one of them is a major drawback in leadership, but EQ needs to be emphasized. In leadership, technical skills assist the leader to understand concepts and guide subordinates to accomplish tasks. The success of leaders is mainly dependent on their on their social and emotional aptitude, even more than their cognitive propensity (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). In order for leaders to promote high commitment among subordinates, they need to possess the capability of interacting freely with them, understand them, help them to solve workplace as well as personal problems, and be an approachable person. Levine & Marcus (2007) argue that over-sensitiveness in leadership signifies reduced levels of emotional intelligence, which is likely to make others shun from engaging in any dealings with the leader. This indicates the likelihood of the occurrence of a communication breakdown in an organization, which can be a major shortcoming in leadership.

Hipp et al. (2008) have viewed management and leadership in a different perspective from the conventional standpoint. A distinction exists between a leader and a manager. Although a manager can be a leader, a leader must not necessarily be a manager. Management is a leader’s role, and requires skills in regard to the tasks assigned to him/her. In other words, a leader needs to possess skills in a particular field to be an effective manager in it. However, if the management aspect is not considered, skills do not matter in order for a person to be an effective leader. Singh (2008) has observed that it is the proactive aspect that defines leadership while, on the other hand, management has little concern about the social aspects of the relationship with the subordinates. However, to accomplish employee satisfaction, it is important to understand them and also ensure that their needs are met. Without emotional intelligence, the management will be unable to maintain satisfaction amongst the workforce (Levine & Marcus, 2007).

Understanding other people and ensuring that they have the freedom to express their feelings is important in maintaining competence in an organization. Incompetence in an organization arises when people can not share information due to differences arising from the inability to understand each other. Emotional intelligence helps people to maintain close relationships that are vital in establishing strong teams in the workplace (Creighton, 2005). Teams whereby people share common values and objectives are likely to excel than when people work individually. However, there must be strong leadership behind every successful team (Louis & Marks, 1998). Since people have different ways of thinking as well as capabilities of handling emotions, a leader who is able to understand the thoughts of each can help in offering direction regarding workplace relationships. Such a person with a high-level of emotional intelligence serves as the pillar for the success of the team. He/she is able to help the people to accomplish a shared vision as well as empowering them to take advantage of the available opportunities, especially for the purpose of career and personal development.

Organizations need to understand the level of emotional intelligence of people who are set for leadership positions. Creighton (2005) observes that it is a strong tool to determine the capacity of a leader to maintain high-performance in order for the organization to achieve its objectives. Assessment can be through interviews before engaging a person in a leadership position, or through an organization’s regular performance appraisals.

Emotional intelligence is a significant factor determining the manner in which leaders respond to occurrences as well as their capability to inspire others to accomplish objectives. It depends on attitudes and thoughts of the leader, whether or not a group of people is likely to follow or believe that they will succeed after acting according to particular instructions (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). In essence, emotional intelligence helps leaders to confirm their credence. This is because they are capable of understanding other people and putting across their arguments in an understandable way for all the subordinates. More-over, such a leader is capable of adapting fast, evaluating other people’s ideas and implementing the ones that are likely to promote the integrity of the organization. According to Emihovish and Battaglia (2000) the leader offers a substantial reason regarding the objection to particular ideas, making sure not to hurt the emotions of others. People are usually enthusiastic about their original idea, which makes it necessary to carefully approach their rejection. Emotional intelligence helps leaders to maintain harmony and vigor amongst their subordinates indicating acceptance of new ideas. People are left with the belief that their own ideas were good, and that they may be of use in the process when need arises. Singh (2008) has asserted that satisfaction accompanies acceptance. When people realize that their contribution has been accepted, they develop a sense of belonging to the system, which improves their performance.

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Leadership

Educational institutions are among the avenues whereby human interactions are usually high. The performance of learners usually depends on the capability of the leaders to interact and exchange ideas. Competent leadership requires the understanding the emotions of colleagues in the educational system (Emihovish & Battaglia, 2000). Interpersonal skills in are important in relating with other people and they are also dependent upon emotional intelligence (Hipp et al. 2008). However, to accomplish in leadership, a person needs to be competent in interpersonal management (Palmer, 2003). In other words, this is competence that helps a person to manage his emotions as well as those of others. In an educational environment, instructors face many challenges regarding passing knowledge to learners. The level of understanding amongst the learners is different, which possess immense challenges to the educationists, especially due to the fact that performance appraisals largely focus on the ability of the instructor to pass skills to the learners (Corrigan, 2000), which means that a low understanding capability amongst students may create a bad impression regarding the teacher.

A leader in an educational institution needs to be an understanding person in regard to the predicaments that instructors face when dealing with students (Louis & Marks, 1998). On the other hand, the teacher needs to be understanding in regard to the thoughts of students. This relationship is becomes strong due to the level of emotional intelligence, which according to Wall (2008), is core to the success of education. It enhances collaboration amongst teachers and the head of an educational institution. It helps in creating an atmosphere of understanding and the willingness to assist each other (Hipp et al. 2008). In an ideal situation, a leader needs to be supportive to the subordinates in all activities of the educational system. Levine and Marcus (2007) have observed that the learning environment largely depends on the leader. The leader is seen as the person in charge of creating a favorable environment whereby the learners and the instructors can engage in constructive interactions in order for knowledge transfer to be accomplished (Senge, 1990).

Assessment of Emotional Intelligence

Emihovish and Battaglia (2000) have suggested that educational leaders can effectively assess their competence through their level of emotional intelligence, which they need to incorporate in the process of performance appraisal. Leadership in educational institutions is not only about management. Corrigan (2000) has stated that even though management of resources are important in enhancing performance, strong leadership is important to maintain harmonious relations as well as ensure that each person appreciates the thoughts of others. It enhances teamwork that is significant for the success of any institution (Singh, 2008). Effective teamwork means that people are able to collaborate and exchange ideas and knowledge. This is an indication of the significance of emotional intelligence in the enhancement of leadership potential. Emotional intelligence is important in the maintenance of discipline, especially when trying to establish why students behave in a particular manner, or why the teachers cannot establish a relationship with students (Wall, 2008). Through understanding the thoughts of teachers and students, a leader can help in fostering a close relationship between them, which is important in maintaining high commitment among the staff as well as good performance in students.

Summary and Conclusion

Emotional intelligence is significant in maintaining strong leadership, and is a strong performance assessment tool, especially when an organization needs to engage people in leadership positions. Competence in leadership translates to high-levels of emotional intelligence (Jamali et al. 2008). It helps in distinguishing leaders from managers. A competent leader is proactive in regard to his/her relationship with staff while a manager has less concern about emotions. However, managers can be strong leaders if they possess a high-level of emotional intelligence. It helps in promoting high commitment among staff as well as teamwork that is significant for the success of an organization. It determines the reaction of leaders in regard to occurrences, enabling them to find solutions to issues that may arise unexpectedly. High-level of emotional intelligence in leaders is significant in the maintenance of enthusiasm in the workplace.

In education, emotional intelligence in leaders helps in maintaining a favorable learning environment as well as creation of harmonious relations between staff and the students. More over, it promotes understanding among leaders, which is important in assisting the staff to foster a strong relationship with the students. It promotes the desired interactions in the learning environment, which is important in maintaining high commitment in staff and good performance amongst students. Educational leaders can assess their competence through analyzing their emotional intelligence. In general it is important for leaders in educational institutions to possess a high-level of emotional intelligence. Through further research regarding the implications of emotional intelligence in education, leaders will learn to maintain competence and high commitment amongst staff and also foster strong relationships between them and the students. There are more areas that need further research regarding Emotional Intelligence, which include; the implication of Emotional Intelligence amongst employees on their performance in the workplace as well as the impact of the Emotional Intelligence of the subordinates on the success of leadership.


Corrigan, D. (2000). “The changing roles of schools and higher education institutions with  Respect to community-based interagency collaboration and inter-professional partnerships”. Peabody Journal of Education Vol. 75(3) pp 176-195.

Creighton, T. (2005) Leading from below the surface: A non-traditional approach to school Leadership. Thousands Oaks, CA: Corwin Press,

Druskat, V.U., & Wolff, S.B. (2001) Building the emotional intelligence of groups. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 79(3) pp 80-90.

Emihovish, C., & Battaglia, C. (2000). Creating cultures for collaborative inquiry: New Challenges for school leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol. 3(3) pp 225-238.

Fullan, M. (2001) Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Hipp, K., Huffman, J., Pankake, A., & Olivier, D. (2008) Sustaining Professional Learning Communities: Case studies. Journal of Educational Change Vol. 9, pp 173-195.

Jamali D., Sidani Y. and Abu-Zaki D. (2008). Emotional Intelligence and Management Development Implications: Insights from the Lebanese context. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 27(3) pp 348 – 360

Kouzes, J. & Posner, B. (1995). The leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass  Publishers.

Levine, T. & Marcus, A. (2007). Closing the achievement gap through teacher collaboration: Facilitating multiple trajectories of teacher learning. Journal of Advanced Academics, Vol. 19(1) pp 116-138.

Louis, K. & Marks, H. (1998) Does Professional Communities affect the Classroom? Teachers’ Work and Student Experiences in Restructuring Schools. American Journal of Education, Vol. 106, pp 532-574.

Mayer, J. D. (1999). Emotional Intelligence: Popular or Scientific Psychology? APA Monitor, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, Vol. 30 p 50.

Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D.J. Sluyter CEds.), Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications, New York: Basic Books, pp 3-31.

Palmer, B. (2003). An Analysis of the Relationships between Various Models and Measures of Emotional Intelligence. Swinburne University, Victoria, Australia.

Senge, P, (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.

Singh P. (2008). Emotional Intelligence Begets Collegial Leadership in Education. The International Journal of Learning, Vol. 15(1) pp.73-88.

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990) Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, Vol. 9, pp 185-211.

Rosete D. and Ciarrochi J. (2005). Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship to Workplace Performance Outcomes of Leadership Effectiveness. Leadership and Organization Development, Vol. 26(5) pp 388 – 399

Thorndike, R.K. (1920). “Intelligence and Its Uses”, Harper’s Magazine, Vol. 140, 227-335.

Wall B. (2008). Working Relationships Using Emotional Intelligence to Enhance your Efectiveness with Others, USA: Davies Black Publishing.


Importance and Controversies regarding Wilderness and Restoration

Wilderness refers to an area of earth that has not been under the influence of human activities. It represents the undisturbed part of the environment that contains natural biodiversity. Natural processes occur in order for a balance to be accomplished in the ecosystem, and human beings have no control of whatever happens in the wilderness (Hall 2005). Such areas are usually found in the protected natural forests, parks, along the riparian zones and many places where there are no development activities by humans. However, humans can carry out their activities in the wilderness so long as its state remains unchanged. In other words, it has to remain wild in nature in order for it to qualify to be referred to as wilderness.

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Wilderness is of paramount importance for man, as well as the survival of plant and animal species. Before urbanization and the spread of man all over the world, species diversity was optimum. The natural systems were self regulating without interference. Natural selection determined the existence of species. After man begun interfering with the wilderness for the purposes of industrialization and urbanization, some species could not withstand the pressure exerted on them, which led to their extinction. Those that survived were forced to establish in the remaining part of the wilderness where man does not have much influence. Studies in ecology significantly depend on the wilderness. This is where new knowledge regarding the ecosystem has been discovered over the years (Peet and Urban 2008).

The wilderness is significant in the maintenance of wild biota that is difficult to reconstruct in the artificial systems such as the modern laboratories. More over, the wilderness has all through been an important source of medicine. Human beings are presently able to deal with diseases that were beyond control as a result of the discovery of medicinal plants, which apart from providing sustenance of human life are also used for business. Pharmaceutical companies generate millions of dollars from production of medicine from the wilderness. It is also used for recreation and solace in times of loneliness (Hall 2005). For example, the parks are important places for recreation, while the beauty and calmness of the natural forests generates a feeling of peace to humans.

The wilderness is a major form a major tourist attraction, which is an important source of income for many economies that have been able to maintain natural systems in protected areas such as parks (Yunus et al 2000). More over, many communities attach religious and cultural values to the wilderness. Under such situations, it helps to maintain harmony in the community. The major controversy that surrounds wilderness areas is the fact that they can not be more important than man. They have to be used in order to facilitate the survival of man. When they turn out to hamper the existence of man, then they have to be eradicated. For example, a wilderness area that serves as breeding ground for harmful wild organisms that originate disease is of no use to man and should be eliminated.

Steps to Help Restore Natural Area

The most important step to take in helping to restore the wilderness is to leave the natural processes to take place and stop human interference. This will allow natural regeneration, which is important in restoring biodiversity. Protection of the wilderness areas is also important in order to prevent human activities from affecting the natural systems. Sensitization of people regarding the importance of biodiversity can help in awareness creation, which generates a positive view of people in regard to the wilderness, hence the avoidance of destruction. Some areas can be left for regeneration of wilderness even where there is human settlement, as well as planting of tree species that were indigenous to a particular area before human settlement (Jordan 2003).


Hall M. (2005). Earth Repair: A Transatlantic History of Environmental Restoration. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Jordan, W.R. 2003. The Sunflower Forest: Ecological Restoration and the New Communion with Nature. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Peet R. K. and Urban D. L. (2008). Changes in forest structure, species diversity, and spatial pattern following hurricane disturbance in a Piedmont North Carolina forest, USA. Journal of Plant Ecology 1:43-57.

Yunus M., Singh N. and Kok de L. J. (2000). Environmental Stress: Indication, Mitigation and Eco-conservation, Springer


The Modern Work Place and the Generation Clash

The generation clash in the workplace today is proving to be quite challenging. A lack of understanding and increasing tension between many older managers and their younger employees is adding to this tension and with a workforce that is ageing rapidly more people will leave the workforce than enter it for the first time in history. That in itself is bound to create a whole new set of challenges and difficulty. We know the generation clash is ever prevalent and ever felt, but what can be done to embrace the strengths and diversities that a multi-generational workforce offers. First off, why the generation clash in the work force now? Previously people from different generations have worked together successfully; why is this generation any different? Can’t we all just do our job, and go home to our separate/personal lives? Maybe not; says Peter Sheahan (2006), a leading Australian author and expert on Generation Y (people born between 1979 and 1994).

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Sheahan observes that, “Employers are finding it increasingly difficult to understand and deal with young workers. The most pressing workforce challenge confronting the business community today is how to attract, manage, and retain the new generation of talent (Sheahan, 2006, pp 198). Sheahan also states, “The companies that will successfully wage the war for this talent will be those that understand and accept that Generation Y brings radically different demands and expectations to the workplace than previous generations; those that do not will seek early retirement” (Sheahan, 2006, pp 204). Could it be possible that the Baby Boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) perceive the Gen Y’s to be lazy, impatient, overly confident, and their expectations and demands often exceeding their skills? Could it also be that while members of Generation Y are at total ease with new technology, they’re multi-skilled, and they are risk takers who embrace change? Right or wrong, one might possibly start to think so.

With that knowledge in hand, how do managers handle a generation that thinks they know everything, who will not hesitate to leave a job even if they are happy, and who feel they should be rewarded just for showing up? Generation Y’s are attracted to meaningful and challenging roles in fun, team-oriented environments that offer flexible working arrangements. Gen Y’s also respond best to a mentoring management style where managers set clear objectives and expected results, but allow for individual creativity and input in the process.

Generation Y’s desire independence with strings which has a lot to do with the way they were raised by their Baby Boomer parents. My father will be the first one to say, “When you work from home, how does your boss really know you are actually working?” I just smile and start my lecture all over again. Old dogs, including my father, will go out as a legend…but probably not for his people management skills. This paper is a review of the available literature regarding generation clash in the workplace. It seeks to establish what can be done to embrace the strengths and diversities that a multi-generational workforce offers.

Values and Principles

Workers from different generations have different values and principles. They behave differently depending on their growth history (Dessler 2004). The occurrences that people encounter as they grow largely affect their future. For example, as Kersten (2000) observes, the veterans who were born between 1922 and 1945 have strong value for work and ethics. They tend to be hard working, respectful to the management, dedicated to their work to the extent of sacrificing their private time to accomplish tasks and also adherents to the workplace rules and regulations. On the other hand, Parvis (2003) highlights the characteristics of the baby boomers group, which comprises the majority in senior positions as people who do not get exhausted easily. According to him, they tend to be efficient in accomplishing tasks. They tend to maintain quality regardless of the prevailing circumstances or workplace rules and regulations. They question the management regarding their tasks, especially if they feel that their efforts are being hampered by the authorities in the workplace. This group mainly comprises of people who were born from 1946-1964 (Pellet 2004).

Kersten (2000) views the generation X as a group who are mainly focused on making work easier rather than toiling throughout their day to day activities. They like independence in their activities, so long as there is a clear working framework and guidelines to follow. This group tends to be skeptical about the working structures (Sondra 2003). The last and most volatile group consists of the people who were born between 1981 and 2000, referred to as generation Y. They consist of a small percentage in most work places (Scott 2007). Dessler (2004) observes that this group is usually eager and curious regarding what is going to happen next after taking a particular action. They tend to engage in numerous tasks and are persistent to accomplish their objectives. They are entrepreneurs who are able to tolerate harsh operating conditions, and they work to fulfill particular demands in life. They differ from the veterans who take work as a responsibility, or the baby boomers who derive much excitement from work.

Attitudes towards Work

The numerous differences regarding attitudes towards work as well as authorities make each group unique. The occurrences that the three groups have witnessed in their life time are associated with their behaviors (Kersten 2000). For example, the veterans and the baby boomers have undergone trying times when they had to suffer a lot physically and emotionally. These include times such as the first and the Second World Wars, oppression by colonial governments, and diseases among other calamities that are not common in the current day. They are therefore likely to derive enthusiasm from working without major problems from the external environment (Parvis 2003). On the other hand, the generation X and Y grew in a time when severe economic crisis, draught, climate change, terrorism, drug abuse and trafficking, many social evils as well as technological advancement were at high heights, especially for generation Y. They are therefore unlikely to focus so much on only one source of income, especially due to the doubts that exist regarding the economic changes occurring globally. Globalization and population explosion has largely affected their daily lives. Dessler (2004) observes that the rising population has reduced the employment opportunities and permanent jobs. Economic crises, inflation has led to a rise in the cost of living making personal development difficult. The two groups develop impatience especially when they realize that there is a likelihood of impediments which may hamper the accomplishment of goals. This is a major reason why workers in this group leave one company to the other severally as they search for the most promising companies whereby the management is favorable for the accomplishment of personal development (Pellet 2004). Parvis (2003) observes that the major difference between the two groups and the rest is the fact that they strive towards personal and career development than the aging workforce in the veteran and the baby boomers groups who have accomplished much in their careers as well as personal lives.

Clash Situations

Clash situations in the workplace usually occur especially regarding supervisory matters. The historical perspective of each group is a major determinant of the manner in which each group prefers to be supervised (Pellet 2004). The generations X and Y usually prefer a flexible workplace whereby supervisors and managers are highly adaptable with the emergent issues. On the other hand, the baby boomers and the veterans are highly conservative and take a longer period to accept new developments in the organization, regardless of the value that others attach to them. They believe in the conventional methods of operation, which may be obsolete according to the X and Y generations (Kersten 2000). Such misapprehension is likely to cause workplace conflicts and low employee retention. In most cases, the veteran and the baby boomer managers tend to accuse the X and Y generations of impatience and un-procedural. They prefer the bureaucratic processes to be followed in accomplishing tasks. This has contributed to redundancy amongst the X and Y generations, and the tendency for the organizations being managed by the veterans and the baby boomers to maintain an aging workforce (Dessler 2004).

Impact of the Generation Gap in the Workplace

In many situations the generation gap causes problems in the work place, especially in organizations where flexibility is not encouraged. It results in failure of employee satisfaction and poor performance as one or two groups of employees try to accomplish a work-life balance. When this is not accomplished due to conservativeness in the management, employees are unlikely to perform. They might take their work as a compulsion, rather than a responsibility. Parvis (2003) observes that many organizations are maintaining an aging workforce due to the inability to cope with the demands of the generation Y and X. On the other hand, these generations feel that they can perform better were it left alone for them to manage the organization without the veterans and the baby boomers. However, Kersten (2000) is of the view that all generations play a significant role in the success of an organization. There needs to be knowledge sharing amongst the workers. This means that the endurance of the veterans and the baby boomers can be transferred to the generations X and Y in order for them to cope with the conventional minded management. On the other hand, the aging work force needs to be inclined towards flexibility in order to adopt the new methods of operation whereby the generations X and Y are best suited, and which can assist in steering the organization towards success.

Importance of a Multi-generational Workforce

Harmonization of the conception regarding workplace issues is one of appropriate ways of creating a productive workforce that consists of all the generations. Sealing the generation gap is important in order to ensure that each member of the workforce feels appreciated. This tends to promote high commitment, especially when a new idea is tried and helps in improving the organizational productivity. Pellet (2004) notes that supporting inventiveness in the workplace is not only concerned with the provision of finances and materials. Rather, moral support through appreciating the initiative of others and integrating it in the organizational operations helps in the maintenance of inventive employees. It generates enthusiasm amongst them, which is critical for the competitiveness of an organization. It also contributes to growth especially when new technologies emerge (Kersten 2000). The generation groups have different incentives that can help in the improvement of performance. For example, the generation X and Y groups may be pleased with incentives such as study leaves, workplace study and such. On the other hand, the veterans usually feel they do not deserve leaves; they may be pleased by medical covers, while the baby boomers may need loans to purchase property (Scott 2007). These differences need to be understood whenever the management decides to offer incentives to the employees.

Maintaining a Multi-generational Diversity in the Workforce

In order to balance the various generations in the workplace, the management needs to understand the various motivating factors for each generation. For example, as Parvis (2003) notes, a good standard of living is a major motivator for the generation X, which is different from the veterans who focus their interests on satisfaction. On the other hand, the generation X and Y need to appreciate the wealth of knowledge and experience possessed by the veterans and the baby boomers (Pellet 2004). In general, no group should look down upon the other. This is because each has something to contribute to the success of an organization. Communication is essential in all situations where people interact. The acceptability of ideas depends on the manner in which they are stated (Dessler 2004). To sum it up, Kersten (2000) argues that age should not be a hindrance regarding knowledge sharing. It needs to be ignored and ideas taken as they are presented, regardless of the presenter.


Generation clash is an important aspect of organizations that determines its success as well as the ability to retain a skilled workforce. Each generation is unique depending on the experiences encountered as people grow up. Generation X and Y have almost the same motivators, apart from a few differences concerned with emotions and attitudes regarding supervision and personal aspirations. Their motivators are almost opposite those of the veterans and baby boomers. However, a combination of the aspects of all the generations may translate in to a successful organization, so long as each group is accorded the respect that it deserves. This can be accomplished through understanding all the motivating factors for each group, as well as ensuring that the incentives offered are suitable. Effective communication is core to harmonizing the operations in a diverse work force (Dessler 2004). Age should also be disregarded in order to ensure that every person has an opportunity to present his/her idea.


Dessler, G. (2004). Management Principles and Practices for Tomorrow’s Leaders. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Kersten, A. (2000). Diversity Management Dialogue, Dialectics and Diversion. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 13, pp. 235-248.

Parvis, L. (2003). Diversity and effective leadership in multicultural workplaces. Journal of Environmental Health, 65, pp.37-38.

Pellet, J. 2004. Driving diversity:  diverse work forces make for better companies. Chief Executive, 198, pp. 48-55.

Scott P. 2007. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Sheahan, P. (2006) Generation y: thriving and surviving with generation y at work (pp. 198-204). Victoria, Austrailia: Hardie Grant Publishig.

Sondra B. T. (2003). Making Diversity Work: 7 Steps for Defeating Bias in the Workplace, Chicago: Dearborn.



The Effects of Environmental Hazards on Prenatal Development

The effects of environmental influences are wide-ranging depending on the prevailing environmental factors. A particular stage of development fails to take place normally, especially the critical period when cells multiply and enlarge to form organs. Prenatal development is critical in determining the health and structure of a newborn. For example, exposure to chemicals, radioactive material, and drugs among other hazardous conditions may lead to failure in development of some body parts, stunted growth in babies as well as poor cognitive development. Severe exposure can lead to miscarriage or death during and immediately after birth (Hepper 2005). This essay is a critique of the effects of environmental hazards on prenatal development. It presents the impacts of the environmental influences especially during the initial stages of development whereby the vital systems of the body as well as tissues develop.

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Effect of Environmental Hazards on Prenatal Development

Drug Use

Drugs are chemicals that are ingested for the purpose of treatment, to relieve pain or stress as well as for stimulation of the body. Some drugs are prescribed by a physician for curing a disease while others may be taken illegally for other reasons. Hepper et al. (2005) observes that more than 10% of the newborn defects are associated with ingestion of chemicals during pregnancy. The more the drugs or substances ingested, the severe the birth defects, especially when they are taken in the first 3 months of prenatal development. Some of the drugs are             such as narcotics are infectious, leading to addiction in newborns. Research indicates that infants who were exposed to drugs such as heroin and such narcotics develop withdrawal symptoms shortly after birth. They may develop shivers, seizures and breathing difficulties (Stocks and Dezateux 2003).

Other nicotine containing substances and carbon monoxide can adversely affect the fetus. Stocks and Dezateux (2003) observe that unprompted abortions are among the risks associated with maternal smoking. Bleeding is also associated with smoking during pregnancy, as well as the breakage of the amniotic sac before maturity. Generally, smoking is a potential cause of miscarriage and death of infants immediately after birth. If the fetus survives to maturity, the newborn is usually more than 20% lighter than the normal birth weight. The body size is also reduced, which is a sign of premature birth. Such infants suffer many health problems (Weisberg 2007).

Alcohol is one of the most abused drugs during pregnancy, which may be attributed to ignorance and addiction. Hepper et al. (2005) observes that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is amongst the dangers that the fetus is exposed to, which pose high risks of miscarriage. Although the more the alcohol taken the higher the risk, little amounts of alcohol on a daily basis are likely to cause miscarriage. Research indicates that maternal drinking leads to mental retardation in newborns. This condition may persist to cause permanent cognitive disability, facial defects, damage of the brain, heart problems and hyperactivity among other defects (Hepper 2005). These defects may not be manifestly observable in newborns but they may affect development, especially learning difficulties. Little maternal drinking is associated with low IQ in children later in life (Dacey & Travers 2002).

Maternal Conditions

The mother is the principal component of the fetal environment, making her body a major determinant of the success of the fetus. The development of the fetus is affected by the body condition of the mother. Problems such as diseases, nutrition, depression and age among others can adversely affect the fetus. Understanding the body processes during pregnancy is significant for the pregnant woman. This knowledge helps in ensuring that they do not jeopardize the development of the fetus, for example through taking drugs. Viral diseases in the mother are a major threat to the fetus due to their small size which the placenta may be unable to sift out to prevent them from attacking the fetus. Diseases such as the Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome and other viral diseases are therefore likely to be transmitted from the mother to the fetus. Some of the viral diseases acquired during pregnancy may have a permanent effect on the newborn. For example, Weisberg (2007) observes that Rubella which is a type of measles is one of the viral diseases that are known to cause long term deformities in newborns, such as mental retardation and malfunctioning of vital body organs such as the heart and ears. Other diseases that may be transmitted include malaria as well as chicken pox among others. Strain from convulsions resulting from diseases such as Toxemia may lead to premature birth. Other conditions resulting from the condition of the mother such as Anoxia may lead to brain damage of the fetus (Dacey & Travers 2002).

Apart from health factors, nourishment of the mother is important for the growth of the fetus. The fetus’ nutrition is derived from the mother and therefore a deficiency in the nutrients needed for growth may affect prenatal development. The extra demands for the pregnant mother need to be satisfied in order for the fetus to develop successfully (Hepper 2005). Research indicates that there is a direct relationship between the development of a newborn and the nourishment of the mother during pregnancy. Health at early infancy is also dependent on maternal nourishment, and the newborn is likely to develop health problems such as respiratory diseases if the mother was malnourished during pregnancy. Proper diet during pregnancy makes reduces complications encountered during pregnancy, which translates in to a reduced period during labor. Infants born within a short period of labor are likely to develop normally (Mattison et al. 2003).

The mother’s blood composition is a major determinant of the survival of the fetus in a situation where the placenta allows the blood of the mother and fetus to come in to contact, probably through rapture. An RH-negative blood of the mother may produce antibodies that attack the RH-positive blood of the fetus, leading to the death of red blood cells. An oxygen deficit results in the fetus causing death Hepper 2005). However, the RH-positive blood in the fetus only occurs when the father is RH-positive, meaning that it is not always that the occurrence of a rapture in the placenta will cause such a problem Mattison et al. (2003).

Environmental hazards may present themselves in the age of the mother. Stocks and Dezateux (2003) argue that women who give birth at their teenage are likely to miscarry or give birth prematurely than at an advanced age. Research also holds that beyond 35 years is also a risky age to give birth. Such women are at a similar risk with the teenage females. In order for the fetus to develop successfully, the mother has to be fully developed, which makes it difficult for prenatal development in teenagers due to the fact that they may not have accomplished full development of the reproductive system. On the other hand, the functions of the reproductive system diminish with advancing age. Dacey & Travers (2002) argue that the female ova are usually present at birth not developed, which implies that they are exposed to environmental hazards for many years if conception takes place at an advanced age. The weakening of ova due to these hazardous conditions is likely to cause difficulties during prenatal development and birth. The hazards may include harmful radiations, diseases and drugs among other encounters. Hepper (2005) observes that Down syndrome is among the deformities that affect babies born by women at an advanced age, for example above 40 years.


Exposure of the fetus to environmental hazards may hamper prenatal development, which in turn may lead to long term deformities in the child. These hazards include drugs such as narcotics, alcohol, smoking and nicotine containing drinks. The mother’s condition is also a major determinant of the success of pre-natal development. Maternal malnourishment, stress and diseases during pregnancy expose the fetus to the risks of infections and deformities. Teenage and old age also present a risk to prenatal development. Blood composition of the fetus and the mother are major determinants of prenatal development. The RH-factor matters especially when the blood of the mother gains access to the blood stream of the fetus Mattison et al. (2003).


Dacey J.S. & Travers J.F (2002). Human Development across the Lifespan. New York, McGraw Hill

Hepper P. (2005). Unraveling Our Beginnings: On the Embryonic Science of Fetal Psychology.  The Psychologist Vol. 18 (8), pp 474-477

Hepper, P.G., Dornan, J.C. & Little, J.F. (2005). Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy may Delay the Development of Spontaneous Fetal Startle Behavior. Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 83, pp 711–714.

Stocks J, Dezateux C. (2003). Nicotine (smoking): The Effect of Parental Smoking on Lung Function and Development during Infancy. Respirology Vol. 8(3) pp 266-85.

Mattison D.R., Wilson S., Coussens C. and Gilbert D. (2003). The Role of Environmental Hazards in Premature Birth: Workshop Summary, National Academies Press.

Weisberg S. S. (2007). Vaccine preventable diseases: current perspectives in historical context. Disease-a-month Journal, Vol. 53(9) pp 467-528.

Starbucks Marketing Mix Analysis Sample Essay

When a company enters in the market to sell its products, it combines various elements of marketing in order to enhance consumer satisfaction. This combination is referred to as marketing mix. It is important in maintaining competitiveness in the market especially when there are competing organizations offering similar products. The 4ps, which represents Product, Place, Price and Promotion, are significant in marketing since they create the desired uniqueness that an organization requires in order to maintain competitiveness (“The Marketing Mix” 2007). Starbucks is one of the U. S. based companies that have maintained competitiveness through a strong marketing mix. This has made it possible for it to uphold a strong customer loyalty. The more customers get satisfied with the organization’s services, the more they demand.

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The company’s product decisions are significant in maintaining a large consumer base. It offers a range of tangible products and services, which include coffee, other cold drinks and snacks, books, music, and films among other products. Product decisions include branding, whereby the organization has been successful in establishing competitiveness through the strong brand name that is recognized worldwide. Functionality is also an aspect of the organization’s products. The products are usually functional to people, especially the coffee beverage that is consumed widely. The company offers high quality products that are satisfactory to consumers. More over, the packaging is innovative, with the coffee being packaged in various quantities for the convenience of buyers. Consumers can purchase depending on their financial capabilities.


Pricing decisions important in marketing since consumers evaluate their purchasing decision depending on the cost of the commodity. One of the pricing strategy that the organization is using recently is the penetration pricing. Through this strategy, it is possible to maintain high sales by lowering the prices of standard drinks, as a reaction to the growing sensitivity of consumers to prices due to the effect of economic crisis. On the other hand, it the specialized drinks are being sold at a higher price, since they are mainly targeted to a different category of people who are not sensitive to prices. The pricing decisions of the organization have enabled it to maintain customers without interfering with its profitability. Wholesale prices are lower, and they enable retailers to make profit through dealing in the organization’s products.


The company has strong channels of distribution globally. It has established many coffee and grocery stores, institutions such as schools, hospitals and strategic places such as airports. It also provides services to homes and many other places where consumers can be reached conveniently. It has established subsidiaries globally. This has enabled it to reach its consumers effectively. It also processes products through orders from institutions, and in such cases, it provides transportation. The distribution strategy is important in ensuring that the customers get the products where and when they need them.


This is an important component of marketing. It involves creating awareness in regard to the organization’s products. It relies on modern advertisement such as through entertaining customers in stores rather than in television commercials. One of the significant advertising strategies is to hold discussions on important national events hosted by Starbucks. In such situations, consumers focus on the discussion, as well as where it is being held, in which case Starbucks brand name becomes known widely. It also uses movies to advertise its products. This has helped in creating awareness regarding the company’s products (Shultz, 2008).


Marketing mix is significant in helping an organization to maintain competitiveness in the market. This is achieved through the use of the 4ps which enhance customer satisfaction. Starbucks employs this strategy to maintain a large market share. The company’s products are of superior quality, the prices are affordable for customers, distribution ensures that consumers get the products at the right place and time and also the promotion strategy has been significant in the success of the organization.


  1. The Marketing Mix: the 4 P’s of Marketing, 2007, viewed on 26th 2009 at


  1. Shultz, H. 2008. Starbucks Makes Organizational Changes to Enhance Customer Experience viewed on 26th 2009 at, <>